Defining the term “Operating System” might be an easy thing, but sometimes it is also a complicated matter. We must have or even often heard the term “Operating System”. It may also have been directly or indirectly related to the term. However, it is not necessarily possible to describe what is actually meant by the term “Operating System”. Conversely, many have heard of the trademark ” Windows ” or the term ” GNU / Linux “, then identified the name Windows or GNU / Linux with the term “Operating System”. free download template website
Operating systems can be defined as a program that regulates computer hardware, by providing a foundation for applications that are on it, and acting as a liaison between users and hardware. The operating system is in charge of controlling (coordinating) and coordinating the use of hardware for various application programs for various users.
In general, the Operating System is software in the first layer that is placed on computer memory when the computer is turned on. While other software will be run after the Operating System is running, and the Operating System will perform general core services for application software. These common core services such as disk access, memory management, schedule-ing tasks, and user interfaces. So that each software does not need to do these general core tasks, because it can be served and carried out by the Operating System. The code section that performs core and general tasks is called the ” kernel ” of an Operating System.
The operating system generally consists of several parts:
- The Boot Mechanism , which is putting the kernel into kernel memory, the kernel can be said to be the core of the Operating System.
- Command Interpreter or Shell , the task is to read the input in the form of commands and provide several standard functions and basic functions that can be called by applications / programs or other software. An example of Shell is: Command Prompt on Windows XP (DOS on Windows 98), XTerm and Konsole on Linux (Unix) machines.
- Drivers to interact with hardware while controlling hardware performance.
- Allocator Resource . The operating system is tasked with managing and allocating resources from the device.
- Handler . Handlers play a role in controlling the device’s system to avoid errors and unnecessary use of resources.
Many types of Operating Systems, ranging from gadgets that we carry everyday such as cellular phones have an operating system in them. Examples of operating systems on this mobile device are Symbian, Android, etc. And today, almost everyone has a good PC in the form of desktops, notebooks and netbooks. Well, here is a brief discussion of the Operating System on a PC, either for standalone or on a server.
1. WINDOWS (MICROSOFT WINDOWS)
UNIX is an Operating System created by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie, developed by AT & T Bell Labs. UNIX is designed as a portable, Multi-Tasking and Multi-User Operating System. The UNIX Operating System emphasizes more on Workstations and Servers, because of the high availability and compatibility factors that make UNIX usable, copied and modified so that UNIX was developed by many parties and caused many variants of UNIX. Examples of these UNIX operating systems are FreeBSD, OpenBSD, and Solaris.
FreeBSD is a free UNIX type Operating System derived from AT & T UNIX. FreeBSD runs on Intel x86 systems. FreeBSD first appeared in 1993 by David Greenman. The purpose of FreeBSD is to provide software that can be used for various purposes. FreeBSD itself was developed from 386BSD, a BSD OS development project that runs on Intel chips.
Solaris is an operating system based on the UNIX system that was allowed by Sun Microsystems in 1992 as a supporter of SunOS. Solaris is famous for its stability, especially on SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture) systems, Solaris is certified in UNIX Specifications even though at the beginning of its development it was based on private ownership, and most of its basic code is now OpenSource Software commonly known as OpenSolaris. OpenSolaris is OpenSource version of Sun Solaris Operating System, but Sun Solaris consists of more than a few codes that are not only the core of the Operating System, for example: Source for Installer, Desktop, Software.
Originally developed by Linus Torvalds, which was originally just a terminal emulation needed to access UNIX servers at the University. Linux is a clone of MINIX (One of the UNIX variants), system equipment and libraries generally come from the GNU Operating System. Linux has many designs that come from basic UNIX designs, Linux uses the Monopoly Kernel, the Linux Kernel that handles process control, networks, peripherals, and file system access. Just like UNIX, Linux can also be controlled by one or more text-based command line interfaces (CLI), graphical user interfaces (GUIs), which are the default configurations for the desktop version.
The main difference between Linux and other Popular Operating Systems lies in the Linux Kernel and its free and open components. Just like on UNIX, Linux concentrates on Workstations and Servers, many Workstations and Servers that rely on Linux because Linux is very stable for long periods of time and Linux is immune to Malware.
There are several types of Linux distributions, such as: Debian, Lycoris, Xandros, Lindows, Linare, Linux-Mandrake, Red Hat Linux, Slackware, Knoppix, Fedora, Suse, Ubuntu.
IBM OS / 2 Operating System was made jointly by the International Business Machine Corporation and Microsoft Corporation, to be used on IBM computers as a substitute for the DOS Operating System. The word OS / 2 stands for Operating System / 2, this Operating System is designed to be able to use the full capabilities of the Intel 80286 microprocessor, including protected mode (Protected Mode), capable of performing tasks simultaneously, and supporting Virtual Memory, while maintaining compatibility with many MS-DOS software in circulation at that time.
5. MAC OS (MACINTOSH OPERATING SYSTEM)
MAC OS or Macintosh Operating System is an Operating System made by Apple Computer specifically for Macintosh computers and is not compatible with IBM-based computers. MAC OS is the first Operating System to use a graphical User Interface (GUI)
Before we discuss application software, it’s good to define what software is. Software is a collection of instructions that function to execute a command, such as providing information about hardware, determining hardware functions, and running the system.
Based on the type, the software is divided into 3, namely:
• Operating System (Windows, Linux, Mac OS, etc.)
• Software applications (CorelDraw, Ms. Office, WinZip, etc.)
Now, what is the Software application?
Application software is a computer program that functions to perform special tasks, such as creating documents, manipulating photos, making financial reports, or designing a design.
Application software has several types, namely:
1. entertainment application software
2. Educational application software
3. business application software
4. special application software, and
5. Work productivity application software.
A programming language is a standard communication technique for expressing instructions to a computer. Like human language, every language has certain rules and rules. Programming language facilitates a programmer to specifically what will be done by the next computer, how the data is stored and sent, and what will be done in the event of varied conditions. Programming languages can be classified into low, medium and high levels. Shifting levels from low to high indicates closeness to “human language”
1. High Level Programming Language
Is a high-level language that has characteristics easily understood because of its proximity to everyday language. A program statement is translated to a machine or by using a compiler. For example: JAVA, C ++, .NET
2. Low Level Programming Language
First generation programming language. This type of language is very difficult to understand because the instructions are using machine language. Also called assembly language is a language by mapping one by one to computer instructions. Each assembly instruction is translated using assembler.
3. Intermediate Programming Language
Where the use of instruction has approached everyday language, although it is still quite difficult to understand because it uses abbreviations such as STO which means save (STORE) and MOV which means to move (MOVE). Included in this language is Fortran.
In programming a software is needed, namely programming software. Programming software is software that is made to be able to recognize certain programming languages, and can be used to compile all syntax that has been written so that it becomes a complete and ready to use program. So that we can also call this programming software is a software that can produce other software.
Examples of this programming software are Microsoft C / C ++, Visual C ++, Microsoft Corporation Visual Turbo and Turbo Pascal, Turbo C ++, Borland C ++ owned by Borland International and many other programming software.
|Computer System Component Abstraction
A computer system can be divided into several main components, such as “users”, “hardware”, and “software”. “The users” (users) are those who use the computer system. The users here are not only humans, but may be other application programs, or other computer devices. “Hardware” (hardware) is in the form of concrete objects that can be seen and touched. This hardware is the core of a system, as well as a provider of resources (resources) for computing purposes. Between “users” and “hardware” there is an abstract layer called “software” (software). Overall software helps users to utilize computing resources provided by hardware.
The software is broadly divided into two, namely “program / application software ” and “Operating System”. “Application program” is software that is run by users to achieve certain goals. ” Operating System ” can be said to be a software that “wraps” hardware so that it is more easily utilized by users through the application programs.
For software programming , hierarchy in computer system components is equivalent to application software, only the difference is that application software is used for certain purposes and for a particular job, but programming software is software that can produce other new software.
Thus, an Operating System is not part of computer hardware, nor is it part of computer application software, moreover certainly not part of computer users.